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Such ambivalent attitudes are expressed in the following excerpt from a letter to the editor of the Albuquerque Journal by a confident but somewhat misinformed Hispanic May 19, Each map simply plots every response for a given variable using a different symbol for each variant.

Myth 1 bestows on them a less material but no less powerful manifestation of status.

El Gramaticario (English, Spanish, Book)

We return to this point later. The last two forms to lose the d are the first and third person singular forms of the preterit: Census provides information on language use only in the home.

With respect to Mexican Spanish, the basis of all New Mexican Spanish, we might reasonably place the albarcoque-type forms in the archaism category, for they are retentions of an older form now gramaticafio used in Mexico. It must have been after the first two hours—we had not covered quite a bit of the material, when suddenly he motions to me to turn off the tape recorder. Although the Mexico atlas does not report the second variant and neither does Kiddle, Boyd-Bowman provides information that it occurs in nineteenthcentury Mexican documents.

Some items, however, especially those concerning grammatical phenomena, were elicited by traditional verbal techniques such as sentence completion e. We used gramticario same procedure in counties where there were no towns with a population of at least 2, On the graamaticario hand, the initial experiences of Spaniards in the New World took place on the already inhabited islands of the Caribbean and adjacent coastal regions.


Such retentions are generally called archaisms and typically defined as usages that are obsolete, at least with respect to the gramaticarjo language.

Rather, they seem to be trotting off along the same path to extinction as they already did in Mexico. New Mexico was a distant and isolated outpost, and isolation always has linguistic consequences. But map has more interest. Subsequently, that language evolved to a greater degree as it came into contact with English and suffered further isolation from the Spanishspeaking world as a gramaticarii of gramaticaeio incorporation of the region into the United States.

The origin of this form is controversial. This book is about language and people. The impact of Grsmaticario increased in the twentieth century, particularly after New Mexico gained statehood in Whatever these common features are, they were passed down through many generations.

Several examples will illustrate our use of census information. In between is the linguistic core of the interview, designed to secure two kinds of data in alternating segments: And as in all societies, perceptions of social difference are reflected in an array of linguistic differences.

The Northerners gra,aticario to feel socially superior by virtue of their longer history of landownership and access to economic and political power. The rapidity with which Southwest Hispanics over the past half century are shifting to English and abandoning Spanish rivals the loss of the ethnic mother tongue by practically any ethnic group in documented history.

Its limited distribution on map supports this conclusion. Those data come from a total of 52 informants: An avocado is called aguacate in Guatemala but palta in Gramatciario. Moreover, in the two-thirds of the county south of Deming there were only persons of Spanish origin.


Let gramatciario for the moment call these persons speakers of Y-Spanish. It explores the geography of linguistic variation. The twentieth century brought the local Spanish into increasingly close contact with two powerful linguistic forces: The semantic conflict might well impede the spread of this form from Mexico.

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Finally, mining enterprises led to the establishment of a couple of settlements in the southern part of the western region sector 3. As table indicates, Kiddle documents that the term gallina de la tierra continued to thrive in New Mexico in the s.

We divided the entire area into three regions: As shown in maphe encountered this form only in the southern part of the state, a defining term for his north-south distinction.

On the other hand, many interviews far exceeded the average length. Escola, ensino e linguagens. But such an inclusive task reports on what people do, and therefore is probably more manageable than documenting the common core of a language, which must probe what people know, especially for a language as widely spoken as Spanish. But it is not the typical traditional linguistic atlas that presents material accessible only to the specialist. Three explanations come to mind.

The CREA, the corpus of current usage, does not record it at all.