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In the Republic of Congo it is called Munukutuba or Kituba.
The suffix indicating voice is adding after the verb root and before the suffix indicating tense. Most verb forms have long and short versions.
All other verbs are conjugated with the help of auxiliary verbs. The latter means simply “speech”. Vowels are never reduced, regardless of stress. In addition, many words have been borrowed from FrenchPortugueseand English. The constitution of the Democratic Republic of Congo lists Kikongo as one of the national languages.
The classes 9 and 11 have in effect merged with the singular class with zero prefix, and their plural is formed with generic plural class prefix ba.
Kituba has kept by and large the noun classes of ethnic Kikongo with some modifications. The workers had diverse linguistic backgrounds which gave birth to a dictionbaire simplified language.
In the academic dichionnaire the language is called Kikongo-Kituba. Yet another theory emphasizes the construction of the Matadi – Kinshasa railroad at the end of the 19th century, which involved forced labour from West Africalower Congo, and the neighbouring Bandundu region. Without dictionmaire rendering supportyou may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. One theory claims that it had already evolved at the time of the Kongo Kingdom as a simplified interdialectal trade language, which the European colonists subsequently took into use for regional administration.
The irregular conjugation of the verb kuvanda or kuvuanda to be is presented in the table below. Dictionnare is more popular in the north. Languages of the Republic of the Congo.
Dictionnaire orthographique kikongo :: Versions :: Add-ons for Firefox
Kituba is known by many names among its speakers. The bulk of Kituba words come from Kikongo. Kituba is the largest language of the Republic of Congo. In fact, it refers to Kikongo ya leta i. It is probable that it is understood by some of the Bakongo people there, especially those who have lived in the Republic of Congo or the Democratic Republic of Congo as refugees or otherwise. Views Read Edit View history.
Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. They are very similar to the vowels of Spanish and Italian.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Editions LECO, p. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo it is called Kikongo ya leta i. Another theory claims that a simplified trade language called Kifyoti was developed at the Portuguese coastal trading 18 post and it was later spread upstream by the Christian missionaries to the region between the Kwango and the Kasai rivers where it evolved further hence the name Kikwango.
The object pronouns are used in place of subject pronouns when the subject is being emphasized. The status of Kituba in Angola is not known. There are also other historical names such as KibulamatadiKikwangoIkeleve literally: Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This page was last edited on 28 Decemberat This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.
There are several theories on how Kituba came into being.