after the quantization step in jpeg compression standard. It is based on decomposed application, if encryption and watermark are commutative, some computational .. fingerprint embedding and decryption for video distribution,” IEEE. 1 1 Commutative Encryption and Watermarking in Video Compression Ieee Transactions On Circuits And Systems For Video Technology, Vol. 17, No. 6, June. 1 1 Commutative Encryption and Watermarking in Video Compression 交換式 加密及浮水印法應用在視頻壓縮 IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for.

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The discussion in Section 2 has shown that in order to be useful in a generic buyer-seller protocol, there ought to be a way to verify the watermark without fully disclosing either the mark or the watermarking key. Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applicationsvol. In this scenario, a number of attacks are possible, most importantly the case where sells a copy of in his own right. These goals call for a combination of the watermarking concepts described watermakring [ 113 ]: While it is hard in comkutative context to define a watermarking algorithm which is generally robust, we could achieve a relatively strong robustness against Time-Scale Modification TSM attacks.

We divide the bins into equal parts of size. If these copies are marked with the identifier of some specific customerthe distributor can repudiate having generated the copies and the customer could be held responsible for the offence of.

Commutative Watermarking-Encryption of Audio Data with Minimum Knowledge Verification

The first bits of the watermark are used vieo synchronization sequence sync and should be known to the detector. Proposed watermarking and encryption scheme Watermark Embedding W: View at Google Scholar S. The histogram part leading to the minimum dissimilarity is used to extract the remaining bits from.

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Share buttons are a little bit lower. In addition, we show that the presented CWE scheme can be integrated into a modified version of a protocol due to Craver and Katzenbeisser [ 2 ], enabling zero-knowledge verification of the watermark, meaning a verifier can verify the presence of a watermark without disclosure of the mark or the watermarking key.

Audio Watermarking Methods From the host of existing audio watermarking methods see [ 12 ] for an encryltionthe method by Xiang et al. The attacker would not, however, be able to prove knowledge of or itself. For each histogram part ejcryption, is extracted and the Rogers-Tanimoto [ 17 ] dissimilarity from is computed, where is the number of occurrences where a sync bit is and a corresponding bit is. Proposed watermarking and encryption scheme Y: The distributor in turn marks for each customer with an additional watermark uniquely identifying.

Generate another random numbersuch that and.

If this is not the case, swap the bins by assigning new values to all samples in the bins. We have shown that existing approaches for commutative watermarking-encryption for images can be transferred to audio files. In [ ih ], however, a permutation cipher is used to permute the sample values in the time domain, thereby keeping the histogram invariant.

An analogue audio signal is transferred into the digital domain by sampling the time-continuous signal at encryptioj certain discrete sampling rate. Note that the noncommutativity is not intrinsic to the overall scheme, but results from the special way the permutations are generated, namely, by deploying the two-dimensional discrete Cat Map.

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Bit error rates of extracted 56 bit watermarks after various StirMark attacks on seven example audio files. Comparison of signal histograms.

Note that for the watermarking algorithm described here, the watermarking key consists of a list of bin pairs. Ciphering Algorithm An analogue audio signal is transferred into the digital domain by sampling the time-continuous signal at a certain discrete sampling rate.

Advances in Multimedia

The watermarking parameters are chosen in such a way that a good robustness against TSM attacks is achieved cf. In order to deploy a synchronization procedure for robustness against TSM attacks as described in [ 13 ], the original mean needs to be transferred separately to the verifier. Proposed watermarking and encryption scheme These watermarks can be used to claim copyright, enforce copying restrictions, or track illegal copies offered on the Internet.

The need for a CWE scheme becomes obvious in steps 3 and 4where an encrypted media object is watermarked and the presence of a watermark is verified in an encrypted object, respectively. Therefore, the bin pairs used to embed the mark now need to watermwrking as watermarking key, as opposed to an initial seed for a pseudorandom number generator as in [ 1 ]. Then she computes and. Announcement of evaluation test results for stepinternational evaluation project for digital watermark technology for music, http: